I'm heading down a new road, so to speak. Instead of the long articles relating a roadtrip down a complete highway, I'll now be posting much shorter articles. And the scope will be wider, covering just about everything from the year 1962. This should allow me to post more often, and allow you to have more fun reading. I'm not sure just how often I will post something, but this page will always show the five most recent articles, with the newest at the top. Older articles will be archived at the Blog Archives page. I may even include articles from other people, so if you have something to say about 1962, please let me know. Topics will cover:
- 1962 News of the World
- 1962 News of the Nation
- 1962 Local News
- 1962 in Sports
- 1962 in Entertainment and the Arts (including movies, TV, music, art, fashion, architecture, design, books, comics, and more)
- 1962 in Science
- Cars of 1962
- Consumer Products and Retail in 1962 (including just about anything you could buy, plus the stores you could buy it in)
- On the Road in 1962 (road and roadtrip topics, including things I typically covered on my long journeys)
Holiday Inns in 1962
Just last week, I picked up this neat Holiday Inns 1962 Summer Directory! Let’s see what it tells us about that iconic motel chain and which Holiday Inns Roadtrip-'62 ™ could have visited in our favorite year.
Kemmons Wilson had the idea for Holiday Inns because of the frustrations he suffered on a family vacation from Memphis, Tennessee to Washington, D.C. in 1951. He found most accommodations to be cramped, uncomfortable, and expensive because they usually charged extra for each child. He measured and cataloged each motel along the way and came back with his idea of the perfect motel. He figured he would need to build 400 motels across the country, each just a day’s drive from another. He got started in his home city, opening four by the end of 1953, one on each main highway leading into Memphis. By 1962, Holiday Inns was undergoing major expansions nationwide, opening at the rate of two new motels every week!
Among the inns that were opened in 1962 was one in my hometown of Saginaw, Michigan. The chain appears to have been making a push into Michigan, as they were also opening new inns in Jackson and two in the Detroit area that year. The Saginaw inn followed their pattern of partnering with the Gulf Oil Company, including a new Gulf service station adjacent to the motel. Another feature of that partnership was that anyone with a Gulf credit card could charge their Holiday Inn stay to it. Unlike many Holiday Inns of that period, the Saginaw motel is still open, having been extensively remodeled in recent years and rebranded as the Davenport Inn.
Holiday Inns also published a magazine for guests, the Holiday Inn Magazine. The cover of the March issue pictured baseball star Mickey Mantle, who also was the owner of a Holiday Inn. Several inns were part owned by celebrities hoping to cash in on their names. Mickey Mantle opened a Holiday Inn in Joplin, Missouri in 1962. At one time, the sign out front advertised, “See the Dugout and Mickey’s Trophies”. The Dugout was the name of the cocktail lounge / restaurant. The magazine has an article about the 2nd annual baseball player's party, which was held at this inn, complete with photos of Mantle, teammate Roger Maris, and other big league players. As you might expect, the magazine is just one a variety of memorabilia for sale from that motel featuring Mickey Mantle’s name and image.
The company was on such a roll in 1962 that they expanded briefly into other ventures, including Holiday Inn Records. The label was set up in the company’s hometown of Memphis in 1961. It released records during the years 1961-1962 by acts including The Rollercoasters, Jimmy Foster, Frank Starr, Kenny Lund, Rusty Curry, and Stan Daniels. After disappearing for a few years, the record label came back during 1968-1969 with different artists, including one whose name fit perfectly, Dolly Holiday. None of the records charted very high.
Perhaps the most remembered artifact from Holiday Inn’s older motels is The Great Sign”. This is the name the company gave to its gigantic, lighted roadside signs used during the original era of expansion from the 1950s to the 1970s. The signs could not be missed from the highway: they were 50 feet tall, included neon, chase lights, and a lighted star on top. Owner Kemmons Wilson loved the "Great Sign" so much that it was engraved on his tombstone. Though the majority of the signs were sold as scrap metal, a beautiful example is preserved at the Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, another is at the National Save the Neon Signs Museum in Minot, North Dakota and one is outdoors at the American Sign Museum in Cincinnati, Ohio.
So, just what Holiday Inns could we have stayed at along our US-23 or US-6 roadtrips? According to the directory, the following inns were open for at least part of the year in 1962. Most of them have been demolished, so we could not make the trip using Holiday Inns. And, as the following list shows, there were almost no Holiday Inns west of the Missouri River in 1962. The chain had not yet expanded much in the west. Anyway, that’s all for today. Please join me soon for news and more fun from 1962, on Roadtrip-'62 ™.
- Saginaw, Michigan – still open as the Davenport Inn
- Flint, Michigan - demolished
- Ann Arbor, Michigan – still open as the Wyndham Garden Inn
- Toledo, Ohio – most recently the Travel Inn, may be closed
- Marion, Ohio – demolished
- Columbus, Ohio – demolished
- Kingsport, Tennessee – demolished
- Asheville, North Carolina – still open as a Days Inn
- Atlanta, Georgia – 2 inns, both demolished
- Macon, Georgia – still open as the Macon Inn
- Folkston, Georgia – demolished
- Jacksonville, Florida – demolished
- Cleveland, Ohio – demolished
- Gary, Indiana – demolished
- Moline, Illinois – demolished
- Des Moines, Iowa – 2 inns, both demolished
- Lincoln, Nebraska – still open as Oasis Inn & Suites
- Denver, Colorado – demolished
Medical Progress in 1962
Today, we take a look at the state of the medical arts in 1962. Some major breakthroughs occurred that year, as happened in many fields of science.
Let’s start with international recognition for one breakthrough: the award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology jointly to Francis Crick and James Watson of the United States, and Maurice Wilkins of the United Kingdom for their work in unraveling the mysteries of DNA. Today, everybody has seen the ladder-like double helix structure of DNA in pictures, but in 1962, no one knew what it looked like, and that meant no one know how to decipher its meaning. Mr. Wilkins had done some work in the early 1950s with X-rays that suggested a vaguely ladder shaped structure to the giant molecule. Over the next decade, Watson and Crick proposed the model we are now familiar with, which explained the properties of DNA. Knowing that, scientists since have been able to sequence the genes of DNA and split and recombine it. Crick's Nobel Prize medal has been kept in a safe deposit box since his widow passed away, but was sold at auction in 2013 for $2.27 million dollars.
In addition, another 1962 discovery was recognized with the award of a Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology 50 years later! Sir John Gurdon of the United Kingdom shared the 2012 prize with Shinya Yamanaka of Japan. Sir John Gurdon’s part in the work of stem cell research was for his basic research in 1962 that discovered that a single cell removed from a frog contained all the genetic information necessary to create a whole frog. Shinya Yamanaka took the science farther over 40 years later, when his research identified the specific four genes that made it possible to reverse mature stem cells into their embryonic state. While this is commonplace knowledge today, back then it was opposite of established opinion that a specialized cell only could recreate more of the same specialized cells. Today, gene splicing is being used for a variety of purposes, including research into the means to give individual patients the opportunity to grow replacement organs.
Other big medial news had more immediate consequences for 1962. This was the year that the drug thalidomide was recognized for causing serious birth defects. This drug first appeared during World War II, when Germany tested is as an antidote for nerve gas. It was found to also act as an anti-nausea drug and beginning in 1957 it was prescribed in Europe and Canada to expectant mothers suffering from morning sickness or insomnia. In 1960, an application to use thalidomide was submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration and assigned to a new employee, Dr. Frances Kelsey. She recognized a lack of testing data, even though the drug was already in common use elsewhere, so she rejected the application. Over the next two years, data came in first from Australia and then around the world, that linked thalidomide to birth defects that cause, among other problems, babies to be born with flipper-like arms and legs, or no arms and legs.
Dr. Kelsey was recognized in 1962 by President John F. Kennedy, who presented her with the President’s Award for Distinguised Service, for her role in saving US children from this fate. Congress went on to enact laws requiring safety tests on pregnant women before drug approval. Dr. Kelsey went on to become the first female head of the Food and Drug Administration. As of 2014, there are about 6,000 worldwide survivors of thalidomide poising from the late 1950s. Thalidomide has recently undergone a revival, as it has been discovered that it can treat multiple myeloma and other cancers, but its use on women even beyond child-bearing age and under very strict supervision is controversial.
Other worldwide medical news separately involved both measles and mosquitoes. Measles was still a real concern as a health problem for children in 1962. My whole family of 6 kids had various strains of measles in the years around 1962, though fortunately without any long-term consequence. But from 1958 to 1962, the US averaged 432 deaths associated with measles each year, so it could be a serious disease. Because virtually all children acquired measles at that time, the number of measles cases is estimated to have been 3.5 to 5 million per year. It was so common, there was even a toy doll, "Hedda Get Better", that caught painted on measles so that “mommy” could nurse the doll back to health. A measles vaccine was licensed in 1963, and the disease is virtually unknown in the country today, having only 634 reported cases in 2014.
Mosquitoes made the news because the world had grand plans to eradicate them! They were recognized as the transmission means for many diseases, including malaria and yellow fever, which debilitated large parts of the populations of tropical areas. The worldwide campaign took place under the guidance of the United Nations’ World Health Organization (WHO) and consisted mostly of spraying DDT, though it also urged installation of screens on buildings, draining of standing water that mosquitoes could use for breeding, and other measures. The campaign was initially very successful, but mosquitoes began to develop resistance to DDT and the world began to see other negative consequences from widespread spraying. One of the works that highlighted those negative consequences was Rachel Carson’s book "Silent Spring", published in 1962. A biologist, Carlson listed environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of using large amounts of chemicals without fully understanding their effects.
By 1967, workers on the ground in Central and South America began seeing mosquito populations climbing again, and the WHO program wound down by about 1970. Needless to say, malaria did not come close to being eradicated. It is still estimated to cause about 225 million cases annually, resulting in 780,000 deaths worldwide, mostly children in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, there are new efforts being developed, including an experimental vaccine against malaria. Other efforts are being funded in part by billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates, who believes the disease can be eradicated within the next 20 years. However, even if a vaccine is found that impacts malaria, mosquitoes transmit many other diseases, such as West Nile Disease and the more recent threat of the Zika virus.
Health insurance was also in the news, just like today. Maybe nothing ever changes because whenever Congress meddles with things they make it worse? In 1962, health insurance was not yet a universally anticipated benefit. In fact, it was largely purchased by individuals with their own money. It generally did not cover any routine medical services, and only just over half of all hospital care was covered. The idea of extending medical insurance coverage to all elderly persons had been floated as far back as the Roosevelt Administration in the 1930s, when it was initially considered as part of Social Security. It failed at that time, but came up for serious consideration again in 1962. President Kennedy pushed the bill, noting that, “The point of the matter is, that the American Medical Association (AMA) is doing very well in its efforts to stop this bill. And the doctors of New Jersey and of every other state may be opposed to it, but I know that not a single doctor, if this bill is passed, is going to refuse to treat any patient. You can go to any doctor you want.” Of course, today one of the problems is that many doctors have indeed refused to treat persons under Medicare coverage, pushing them off to some other doctor.
Actor Ronald Reagan, who had not yet become a politician, recorded a speech for the AMA in 1962, noting, “One of the traditional methods of imposing statism or socialism on a people has been by way of medicine. It’s very easy to disguise a medical program as a humanitarian project.” He also stated, “And behind it will come other federal programs that will invade every area of freedom as we have known it in this country, until, one day…we will awake to find that we have socialism.” Canada had just implemented their form of Medicare, and doctors in the province of Saskatchewan staged a province-wide, 23-day general strike in protest of the system. Canada’s experience and the AMA opposition won the day, and Congress failed to pass a Medicare bill that year. It was not passed until 1965.
Ronald Reagan on behalf of the American Medical Association, speaking about Medicare in 1962.
For an unusual medical connection, Roadtrip-'62 ™ visited the Palmer Museum of Chiropractic History in Davenport, Iowa on our US-6 roadtrip.
St. Patrick’s Day Parades of 1962
With St. Patrick’s Day coming up soon, let’s take a Roadtrip-'62 ™ look at St. Patrick’s Day parades in 1962. First, a look at St. Patrick’s Day parades along our US-23 roadtrip, then elsewhere around the country.
Bay City, Michigan’s St. Patrick's Day parade began in 1955. Today, as it did back then, the parade proceeds down Center Avenue, a street of beautiful, historic homes. Since it’s beginning, it has expanded to include a pre-parade event with dinner and dancing the night before. You can find more info about this year’s parade at the Bay City St. Patrick’s Day Association website.
Farther south along US-23, in Columbus, Ohio, the Shamrock Club of Columbus has been holding a parade since 1936. The current parade route crosses US-23. The day begins with a Procession to Mass, followed by Mass at Holy Cross Church, the first Catholic Church in Columbus. After the parade, they hold an Irish Family Reunion. The club bills itself as Central Ohio's Largest Irish Organization.
The 7 Nations Celtic Club of Southern Ohio will hold it's annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in Portsmouth, Ohio. Here’s a parade highlight from 2011, featuring some fine bagpipers heading right down US-23 to Tracy Park.
The St. Patrick’s Day parade in Atlanta, Georgia is the farthest south I’ve found along US-23. Atlanta held its first parade in 1858. It proceeds down Peachtree Avenue toward Woodruff Park and in one recent year, Ireland’s Consul General was the Grand Marshall. The parade has had over 200 units, which I’m guessing makes it the largest parade on our route! It was originally held by Atlanta’s Hibernian Benevolent Society and is now produced by Atlanta St. Patrick’s Parade, Inc., formed of representatives of several local Irish societies.
And there are parades along our US-6 route also. Scranton, Pennsylvania’s first St. Patrick's Day parade was held in 1962 by the St. Patrick's Parade Association of Lackawanna County. The Scranton parade is also preceded a Mass, at St. Peter’s Cathedral. This one claims to be the second largest parade in the country, as measured by participants per population of the host city. Savannah, Georgia is first and New York City is third.
Denver, Colorado, which is also on our US-6 roadtrip, will be hosting their 55th annual St. Patrick's Day parade this year, so we could have seen one in 1962. The parade dates back to 1889, when Denver held its very first St. Patrick’s Day Parade. It continued until 1921 and was then interrupted until 1962. That year, a visit to Denver from the Lord Mayor of Dublin, prompted the welcoming committee to transport the Lord Mayor from the airport to Duffy’s Shamrock Tavern for dinner via motorcade. Today, Ireland's first Consul General to the U.S. Southwest attends the parade held by the Denver St Patrick’s Day Parade Committee.
I’m sure that everyone has heard of New York City’s Patrick's Day parade, but did you know that Newark, New Jersey, just across the Hudson River, also has a parade? It claims to be New Jersey’s first, founded in 1936 and now in its 82nd year. Their celebration is so big that they paint Mulberry Street green! Newark also starts the day with a Mass, and their parade features the Newark Firefighters Pipe Band and the Knights of Columbus 4th Degree Color Guard.
To the east of Newark out at the tip of Long Island, Montauk, New York’s parade was founded in 1962! You won’t get here by any US-numbered route, as the closest one is across Long Island Sound in Connecticut. The original organizing group, the Montauk Friends of Erin,consisted of only 12 members. Before the parade, the Montauk Chamber of Commerce will be serving hot soup in your very own St. Patrick’s Day Parade souvenir mug.
Also in New York state, and also well off any US-numbered highways, is the parade at Alfred. Reader George Lane sent us a photo of the parade he took in 1961 or 1962 and notes that the parade is a tradition at Alfred University beginning in the 1930s. As it happens, St. Patrick is the Patron Saint of the Ceramic Engineers, and the State University of New York College of Ceramics is at Alfred University.
At Savannah, Georgia’s Patricks Day parade, you might see the famous Clydesdales clomp by. They have appeared in recent years, pulling their Budweiser Beer wagon. Today, the parade features more than 350 marching units and up to 15,000 people. But when it started in 1824, it was more of a military parade, with soldiers from different regiments marching in honor of St. Patrick’s Day. Even today, the Savannah Saint Patrick’s Day Parade Committee honors the men and women who have served, and continue to serve, in the armed forces of the United States of America.
Out west, Houston, Texas holds a St. Patrick's Day Parade dating back to the 1880s. As might be expected with something having a tradition that old, it has been interrupted several times since. It started in "Irish Town" by old St. Patrick's Church and originally continued until World War I. It was revived in 1960 by local radio personalities, Tim Nolan and Bob Bryant and has since grown into one of the city's largest parades. The Houston St. Patrick's Parade Commission notes that this two-hour parade has historically been one of the largest in the U.S. and each year includes over 100 entries.
And of course, the biggest and best known of St. Patricks Day parades is that held in Chicago, Illinois! It has been marched continuously since 1957. The day’s events include dyeing the Chicago River green, which they’ve done since 1962! I hope you’ve enjoyed this special St. Patrick's Day article from Roadtrip-'62 ™ and visit one of the parades next week.
Ed-U-Cards Games to Grow Up With - Update
Here’s something I haven’t done before, post an update to one of my articles. This is an update to my article Ed-U-Cards Games to Grow Up With. Since that was first published over five years ago, I have continued to find more games and more information on games I had discussed. I have even purchased some additional games for my own collection.
Here’s an example of a game I discovered within just the past year. I had done a lot of research on eBay, and never turned this up. But I found it in a local antique store and just had to buy it. I have not been able to find the age, but it has a late 1950s-early 1960s look to it. The box is still labeled as made by “Ed-U-Cards”, the name the company used until they changed to “Edu-Cards” by 1963. So “3 Wee Pigs” may have been around in 1962. All the game pieces are die cut from thick cardboard, as many of the Ed-U-Cards games were. The game pieces include pigs, of course, spinners, and bricks and windows to build your safe, brick house first. If you spin the wolf, you lose a turn.
I have also discovered one company that subcontracted work for Edu-Cards, through the help of one of my readers. Alan (no last name given) wrote me that his father owned Precision Assembly Corporation in Long Island City, New York, which did the packaging for Edu-Cards. The two companies even shared the same building together. He went on to relate that Precision Assembly did packaging for products such as “Great Moments in Music” and “Great Art Treasures”, and other games including Yahtzee by E.S. Lowe.
I also have some corrections to information I previously presented. For example, I had stated that Ed-U-Cards started publishing puzzles in 1966, but have since discovered a puzzle published by them in 1962. I have also found new information about the final few games from Edu-Cards, in 1984. During that final year, they produced at least the following four games: “+ and - Schoolbus Game”, “Find and Read Game”, “Animal Spelling Game”, and “It’s O.K. To Say NO! (Awareness Card Set)”. That last game may be the strangest game they ever made, an anti-drug use game that seems to have been a forerunner of then-first lady Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say No” campaign. Mrs. Reagan kicked off her campaign in September, 1986, but since this game was endorsed by The Children’s Justice Foundation, I suspect the general idea of “Just Say No” was around two years earlier.
I had mentioned that some of the card games, such as “Mixies”, were being republished with new artwork by a company named eeBoo. More recently, there was another attempt to republish original Ed-U-Cards games. In late 2012, Stephen Leon and a partner re-registered the lapsed trademarks and began a business to publish several of the old Ed-U-Cards games. They set up a Kickstarter project, but canceled the project before December 31. It appears they did not reach their funding goal and I have no more information on whether they will publish or not.
Since we’re usually discussing 1962, here’s my list of Ed-U-Cards games that came out that year. Some are uncertain and could have been out in 1961 or 1963; those are so noted. Though the Jumbo Lotto is labeled as Set 1, I have not found any other sets. I remember the Casper and Bullwinkle games we had at home, and my mom kept all these years. They are now in my collection, though missing a few cards, as you might expect.
- Mini Playing Cards (with zebra backs) - 196??
- Terrytoon Edition Old Maid Card Game - 196??
- Casper and His TV Friends Card Game - 196??
- 3 Wee Pigs (A Child’s First Game of Counting Fun) - 196??
- Ed-U-Cards Of Science – Experiments - 1962
- Ed-U-Cards Of Science – Chemistry - 1962
- Ed-U-Cards Of Science – Astronomy - 1962
- Ed-U-Card Library - 1962
- Bullwinkle Card Game - 1962
- Jumbo Lotto Community Helpers – Set 1 - 1962
- The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm Cinerama Jigsaw Puzzle - 1962
- Jr. Keno Game - 1962
- Krazy Kar Circus Inlay Tray Puzzle - 196??
- Enriched Flash Cards – Subtraction - 196??
- Enriched Flash Cards – Multiplication - 196??
And finally, I had mentioned in my original article that I was inspired by the Ed-U-Card games I played around 1963, and my interest in chemistry, to create my own Chemistry Game. I really thought I had something, and submitted the idea to Ed-U-Cards. Of course, it was never published, but neither my mother nor I remember if I ever received a rejection letter. Proving that I had a good idea though, a company called Genius Games issued a similar game in 2015! Just like my old game, “Ion – A Compound Building Game” consists of a deck of cards showing some elements, such as sodium and hydrogen. And also just like my old game, the rules involve matching the elements to create some chemical compounds, such as salt (sodium chloride), something like a rummy game. Besides common chemicals, “Ion” includes some radioactive elements to make it even cooler than my idea!
All photos by the author and Copyright © 2017 - Milne Enterprises, Inc., except as noted.
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